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The Increasing Popularity of Mushroom-based Supplements

Last updated: September-13,2022

The Increasing Popularity of Mushroom-based Dietary Supplements

Consumer demand for mushroom-based dietary supplements have been increasing in popularity. Of course, that’s not to say that interest in the use of mushrooms hasn’t existed for a much more extended period. In fact, for more than two thousand years mushrooms have been used as medicines. Furthermore, in September of 1991, a 5,300-year-old mummy was found in the Tyrolean Alps, and his medicine kit contained Piptoporus betulinus, a mushroom he probably used as a natural worm-killer and laxative.[i]

There are many different species of mushrooms used in Chinese and Japanese natural medicines. This article covers the various health properties of these mushrooms and the ways you can formulate with them to create a high-quality dietary supplement product.

Short on time? No problem! I've recorded a podcast about this topic. Simply click the play button below to listen to this episode!

Cordyceps sinensis

Cordyceps Sinensis Health Benefits

Let's start with Cordyceps sinensis This mushroom's beneficial effects on the immune system seem to be a function of its ability to increase the number of T helper cells [ii], increase natural killer cell activity [iii] [iv], stimulate blood mononuclear cells [v], increase levels of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1 [vi], and prolong the survival of lymphocytes.[vii]

The History of Cordyceps sinensis

Cordyceps sinensis is a mushroom found on the high plateaus of western China, and its Mandarin name literally means “winter bug, summer herb”. This accurately describes the fact that the worm dies in the summer, and a mushroom grows on it. It was discovered 1,500 years ago when Tibetan herdsman found that their yaks were much livelier after eating this worm-mushroom from mountain pastures.[viii] Eventually, Cordyceps found its way into the hands of the Emperor’s physicians who considered it to have ginseng-like properties.[ix]

Research Completed on Cordyceps

There are a number of studies supporting the effectiveness of Cordyceps, particularly for liver, kidney, and immune problems. Some of these studies have shown distinct immune-enhancing, and antioxidant effects.[x] [xi] [xii] [xiii] [xiv] Supplementation with Cordyceps in human subjects showed that it could promote cellular immune function and quality of life.[xv] In other research, supplementation with Cordyceps had a beneficial effect on liver function and immunocompetent.[xvi] [xvii]

Agaricus blazei

Agaricus Blazei Health Benefits

The next mushroom is Agaricus blazei, which has also been shown to have immunostimulant effects.[xviii] In vitro and animal research suggest that it enhances the production of cytokines such as interferon and interleukin.[xix] [xx]

The History of Agaricus blazei

Interestingly, Agaricus was first discovered in Florida in 1944, although its main natural habitat is a mountainous region in Sao Paulo, Brazil. It has been suggested that the high rate of good health in that region is a result of the people using Agaricus as a part of their regular diet. The mushroom was brought to Japan in 1965. An artificial cultivation process was established in 1978, and since then this mushroom has been well evaluated in terms of biochemical and medicinal properties.[xxi]

Agaricus blazei research

Extracts of Agaricus mushroom, especially beta-glucan extracts, have profound immunostimulant effects in animal research.[xxii] [xxiii] [xxiv] [xxv] [xxvi] Use of Agaricus by human subjects in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found that it promoted healthy insulin sensitivity.[xxvii] In addition, a clinical study[xxviii] found that Agaricus extract was able to promote healthy liver function.

Grifola frondosa - AKA: Maitake

Grifola Frondosa Maitake Health Benefits

Grifola frondosa, commonly known as maitake, has immunostimulant effects and activates natural killer cells, cytotoxic T-cells, and interleukin-1. Maitake contains beta-glucan, the D-fraction of which appears to be the most active and potent form.

Grifola frondosa History

Maitake is a mushroom which is famous for its taste and health benefits. It is also known as the “dancing mushroom”, since legend holds that those who found it began dancing with joy.[xxix] In any case maitake has been used historically as a tonic and adaptogen; that is a substance that invigorates/strengthens the system and helps it adapt to stress. Along with other “medicinal” mushrooms, such as shiitake and reishi, maitake is used as a food to help promote wellness and vitality.

Maitake Mushroom Research

Maitake contains complex polysaccharides which act as immunomodulatory.[xxx] Animal studies suggest maitake may promote healthy serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels already in a normal range.[xxxi] [xxxii] Also of interest, Japanese scientists undertook an in vitro experiment to see what effect maitake had on a certain type of cell that has the potential to balloon and turn into a fat cell. The results of the experiment showed that maitake inhibits the conversion of the cell into fat cells.[xxxiii]

Human case studies have shown that maitake mushroom polysaccharides promote healthy blood sugar levels already within a normal range.[xxxiv] Research in women maitake mushroom powder may help promote healthy ovulation.[xxxv] In unrelated research, thirty-two overweight subjects were given 10 grams of maitake powder for two months. Without changing their diets, all subjects lost an average of 12 pounds.[xxxvi]

Trametes versicolor - AKA: Coriolus

Trametes Versicola Coriolus Health Benefits

Trametes versicolor, also known as Coriolus, contains several polysaccharides, including polysaccharide peptide and krestin, shown to have immunomodulating effects. Polysaccharide peptide seems to improve immune function by increasing white cell, natural killer cell, and antibody levels.[xxxvii]

Trametes versicolor History

Trametes versicolor has a long history of medicinal use in China and Japan and is one of the most researched and respected of the medicinal mushrooms from Europe to the Far East.[xxxviii] It grows on tree trunks throughout the world in many diverse climates, including North America.[xxxix]

Trametes versicolor Research

Several essays have reported that Trametes polysaccharides have significant immune modulating effects, and also exhibit antioxidant properties, with strong scavenging effects on superoxide and hydroxyl radicals.[xl]

Ganoderma lucidum - AKA: Reishi

Ganoderma Lucidum Reishi Health Benefits

Rounding out this conversation is Ganoderma lucidum or Reishi. Ganoderma lucidum have a long history in folk medicine, but researchers are just beginning to isolate and identify medicinal constituents. Active constituents from reishi mushrooms are primarily polysaccharides including beta-glucans and triterpenes.[xli] [xlii] [xliii]

The History of Reishi Mushrooms

Reishi mushrooms, grow wild on decaying logs and tree stumps in the coastal provinces of China.[xliv] Reishi has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for at least 2,000 years.[xlv] The Chinese name translates as the “herb of spiritual potency” and was highly prized as an elixir of immortality.[xlvi] Its Traditional Chinese Medicine indications include treatment of general fatigue and weakness, sleeplessness and more.[xlvii]

Reishi Mushroom Research

Reishi constituents seem to have a variety of effects including antioxidant, immune modulating, and cardiovascular benefits.[xlviii] Research has shown that human subjects treated with reishi polysaccharide fractions enjoyed enhanced the immune responses.[xlix] Other controlled clinical trials have shown that reishi promoted healthy blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol already within a normal range.[l] [li] [lii]

Additional research with reishi combined with two other herbs demonstrated effectiveness in promoting healthy joint function and comfort. Also, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study [liii] found that reishi extract was effective for men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

formulating-mushroom-supplements-infographic

Popular Delivery Forms for Mushroom-based Supplements

So now that we've established the health value of these mushrooms, what are the delivery forms that a brand owner should consider when planning to formulate a mushroom-based supplement?

The answer is that depends on what you’d like to have in the formulation. The flavor of mushroom extracts can range between earthy/nutty to slightly bitter. So, if you’d like a powdered product, you’ll need to choose those mushrooms with a relatively neutral flavor profile, or those only requiring a low dose so that any undesirable flavor qualities can get lost among the other ingredients. If you’re good with a capsule, then the mushroom flavor won’t be an issue. You may also want to consider a combination of two or more mushrooms since they tend to have complementary effects.

How Can NutraScience Labs Help You Create Mushroom-based Supplements?

If you want to make sure to make the right mushroom choices regarding delivery forms and combinations with other mushrooms and nutraceuticals, you’ll want to make sure to work with an experienced contract manufacturer like NutraScience Labs. We’ve helped over 2,300 dietary supplement brands around the globe manufacture and bring customized, high-quality nutraceuticals to the market, so we can help guide you in making the right choices for your mushroom product.

For more information on how to get started or to speak with one of our production specialists, request a free supplement manufacturing price quote or call 855-492-7388.

References:

[i]Halpern GM, Miller AH. Medicinal Mushrooms. New York: M. Evans & Company; 2002:59-74.

[ii]Chen GZ, Chen GL, Sun T, et al. Effects of Cordyceps sinensis on murine T lymphocyte subsets. Chin Med J (English) 1991;104:4-8.

[iii]Liu C, Lu S, Ji MR. [Effects of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) on in vitro natural killer cells]. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1992;12:267-9, 259.

[iv]Xu RH, Peng XE, Chen GZ, Chen GL. Effects of cordyceps sinensis on natural killer activity and colony formation of B16 melanoma. Chin Med J (English) 1992;105:97-101.

[v]Chen YJ, Shiao MS, Lee SS, Wang SY. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on the proliferation and differentiation of human leukemic U937 cells. Life Sci 1997;60:2349-59.

[vi]Chen YJ, Shiao MS, Lee SS, Wang SY. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on the proliferation and differentiation of human leukemic U937 cells. Life Sci 1997;60:2349-59.

[vii]Zhu XY, Yu HY. [Immunosuppressive effect of cultured Cordyceps sinensis on cellular immune response]. Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1990;10:485-7, 454.

[viii]Halpern GM. Cordyceps: China’s Healing Mushroom. Garden City Park, New York: Avery Publishing; 1999:7-14.

[ix]Hobbs C. Medicinal Mushrooms: An exploration of tradition, healing and culture. Santa Cruz, CA: Botanica Press; 1995.

[x]Nakamura K, Yamaguchi Y, Kagota S, et al. Activation of in vivo Kupffer cell function by oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol 1999; 79:505-8.

[xi]Nakamura K, Yamaguchi Y, Kagota S, et al. Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneous liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma cells in syngenic mice. Jpn J Pharmacol 1999; 79:335-41.

[xii]Lui JL, Lui RY. Enhancement of cordyceps tail polysaccharide on cellular immunological function in vitro. Chin Pharm J China 2001; 36:738-41 [in Chinese].

[xiii]Shin KH, Lim SS, Lee SH, et al. Antioxidant and immunostimulating activities of the fruiting bodies of aecilomyces japonica, a new type of Cordyceps sp. Ann NY Acad Sci 2001; 928:261-73.

[xiv]Yamaguchi Y, Kagota S, Nakamura K, et al. Antioxidant activity of the extracts from fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps sinensis. Phytother Res 2000; 14:647-9.

[xv]Zhou DH, Lin LZ. [Effect of Jinshuibao capsule on the immunological function of 36 patients with advanced cancer]. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1995;15:476-8.

[xvi]Zhou L, Yang W, Xu Y, et al. [Short-term curative effect of cultured Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. Mycelia in chronic hepatitis B]. Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1990;15:53-5, 65.

[xvii]Wang XB, Jiang YY, Zhao CY. [Clinical research of xinganbao capsule on the treatment of chronic hepatitis B liver fibrosis]. [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2012 Mar;32(3):325-8.

[xviii]Shimizu S, Kitada H, Yokota H, et al. Activation of the alternative complement pathway by Agaricus blazei Murill. Phytomedicine 2002;9:536-45.

[xix]Chen L, Shao H. Extract from Agaricus blazei Murill can enhance immune responses elicited by DNA vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2006;109:177-82.

[xx]Kasai H, He LM, Kawamura M, et al. IL-12 Production induced by Agaricus blazei fraction H (ABH) involves toll-like receptor (TLR). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2004;1:259-67.

[xxi]Mizuno T. Medicinal properties and clinical effects of culinary-medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill (Agaricomycetideae). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2002; 4(4):299-312.

[xxii]Kaneno R, Fontanari LM, Santos SA, et al. Effects of extracts from Brazilian sun-mushroom (Agaricus blazei) on the NK activity and lymphoproliferative responsiveness of Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice. Food Chem Toxicol 2004;42:909-16.

[xxiii]Nakajima A, Ishida T, Koga M, et al. Effect of hot water extract from Agaricus blazei Murill on antibody-producing cells in mice. Int Immunopharmacol 2002;2:1205-11.

[xxiv]Kobayashi H, Yoshida R, Kanada Y, et al. Suppressing effects of daily oral supplementation of beta-glucan extracted from Agaricus blazei Murill on spontaneous and peritoneal disseminated metastasis in mouse model. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2005;131:527-38.

[xxv]Ohno N, Furukawa M, Miura NN, et al. Antitumor beta glucan from the cultured fruit body of Agaricus blazei. Biol Pharm Bull 2001;24:820-8.

[xxvi]Lee YL, Kim HJ, Lee MS, et al. Oral administration of Agaricus blazei (H1 strain) inhibited tumor growth in a sarcoma 180 inoculation model. Exp Anim 2003;52:371-5.

[xxvii]Hsu CH, Liao YL, Lin SC, et al. The mushroom Agaricus Blazei Murill in combination with metformin and gliclazide improves insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Altern Complement Med 2007;13:97-102.

[xxviii]Hsu CH, Hwang KC, Chiang YH, Chou P. The mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill extract normalizes liver function in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Apr;14(3):299-301.

[xxix]Hobbs C. Medicinal Mushrooms: An exploration of tradition, healing and culture. Santa Cruz, CA: Botanica Press; 1995.

[xxx]Nanba H, Hamaguchi AM, Kuroda H. The chemical structure of an antitumor polysaccharide in fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa (maitake). Chem Pharm Bull 1987; 35:1162-8.

[xxxi]Kubo K, Nanba H. Anti-hyperliposis effect of maitake fruit body (Grifola frondosa). I. Biol Pharm Bull 1997; 20:781-5.

[xxxii]Adachi K, Nanba H, Otsuka M, Kuroda H. Blood pressure lowering activity present in the fruit body of Grifola frondosa (maitake). Chem Pharm Bull 1988; 36:1000-6.

[xxxiii]Nakai R, et al. Effects of maitake (Grifola frondosa) water extact on inhibition of adipocyte conversion of C3H10T1/2B2C1 cells. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 1999; 45:385-390.

[xxxiv]Konno S, Tortorelis DG, Fullerton SA, et al. A possible hypoglycaemic effect of maitake mushroom on Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 2001;18:1010.

[xxxv]Chen JT, Tominaga K, Sato Y, et al. Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) extract induces ovulation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a possible monotherapy and a combination therapy after failure with first-line clomiphene citrate. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16:1295-9.

[xxxvi]Yokota M. Observatory trial of anti-obesity activity of maitake (Grifola frondosa). Anshin 1992; 7:202-4.

[xxxvii]Qian ZM, Xu MF, Tang PL. Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) restores immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide in rats. Am J Chin Med 1997;25:27-35.

[xxxviii]Kidd P.M. The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment. Alternative Medicine Review. 2000;5:4–27.

[xxxix]Standish LJ, Wenner CA, Sweet ES, et al. Trametes versicolor Mushroom Immune Therapy in Breast Cancer. J Soc Integr Oncol. 2008 Summer;6(3):122–128.

[xl]Lee K-H, Morris-Natschke SL, Yang X, et al. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine. J Tradit Complement Med. 2012 Apr-Jun; 2(2): 84–95.

[xli]Wasser SP, Weis AL. Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective. Crit Rev Immunol 1999;19:65-96.

[xlii]Yuen JW, Gohel MD. Anticancer effects of Ganoderma lucidum: a review of scientific evidence. Nutr Cancer 2005;53:11-7.

[xliii]Gao Y, Zhou S, Jiang W, et al. Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunol Invest 2003;32:201-15.

[xliv]Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics, 2d ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1996: 255–60.

[xlv]Halpern GM, Miller AH. Medicinal Mushrooms. New York: M. Evans & Company; 2002:51-57.

[xlvi]Willard T. Reishi Mushroom: Herb of Spiritual Potency and Wonder. Issaquah, WA: Sylvan Press; 1990:11.

[xlvii]Halpern GM, Miller AH. Medicinal Mushrooms. New York: M. Evans & Company; 2002:51-57.

[xlviii]Wasser SP, Weis AL. Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective. Crit Rev Immunol 1999;19:65-96.

[xlix]Gao Y, Zhou S, Jiang W, Huang M, Dai X. Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunol Invest. 2003 Aug;32(3):201-15.

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[li]Jin H, Zhang G, Cao X, et al. Treatment of hypertension by ling zhi combined with hypotensor and its effects on arterial, arteriolar and capillary pressure and microcirculation. In: Nimmi H, Xiu RJ, Sawada T, Zheng C. (eds). Microcirculatory Approach to Asian Traditional Medicine. New York: Elsevier Science, 1996; 131-8.

[lii]Chu TT, Benzie IF, Lam CW, Fok BS, Lee KK, Tomlinson B. Study of potential cardioprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi): results of a controlled human intervention trial. Br J Nutr. 2012 Apr;107(7):1017-27.

[liii]Noguchi M, Kakuma T, Tomiyasu K, et al. Effect of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized and dose-ranging study. Asian J Androl. 2008 Jul;10(4):651-8.

September 13th, 2022

About the Author:

 
Gene Bruno

Gene Bruno, MS, MHS, RH(AHG) - Mr. Bruno possesses over 42 years of dietary supplement industry experience. With a Master's degree in nutrition and a second Master's degree in herbal medicine, he has a proven track record of formulating innovative, evidence-based dietary supplements. Mr. Bruno currently serves as both the Senior Director of Product Innovation at Twinlab Corporation and Professor of Nutraceutical Science at Huntington University of Health Sciences.